Perhaps more than any other discipline, the teaching of mathematics lends itself to procedural recipes where students memorize and duplicate procedures by rote: if it looks like this, do that to it. “If one believes that mathematics is mostly a set of procedures –rules and truths – and the goal is to help students become proficient executors of the procedures, then it is understandable that mathematics would be learned best by mastering the material incrementally, piece by piece.”2 Teaching practices that commonly flow from this procedural view are demonstration, repetition, and individual practice.

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Friesen, S. Raising the floor and lifting the ceiling: Math for all. *Education Canada. *Canadian Education Association CEA-ACE.